2. Charging and discharging of battery (1) Initial charging of new battery The initial charge of ordinary lead storage battery is required when it is used for the first time. Its quality directly affects the capacity and life of the battery, so it must be carried out carefully. The method is as follows: ①Check before charging. Before the initial charging, check the battery and its accessories thoroughly to see if the container is broken or the accessories are lacking, and clean it up. ②Pour electrolyte. According to the instructions, inject the electrolyte of the specified density, and use a 0~3V DC pad pressure gauge to check whether the medium single-cell battery has reverse polarity. ③To charge. Correctly connect the charger and battery, the charging process is divided into two stages. The charging current of the first stage is about 1/4~1/6 of the rated capacity of C20, charging until bubbles are released in the electrolyte, and the single cell voltage reaches 2.4V, and the current is reduced by half, and then transferred to the second stage, until the electrolysis Bubbles emerge from the liquid, and the density and voltage remain stable for 2 to 3 hours. The total charging time is about 60~70h. The electrolyte temperature must be measured frequently during the charging process. When the temperature exceeds 40°C, the charging current should be halved, but the charging time should be prolonged. When the temperature exceeds 45°C, stop charging immediately, and charge again when the temperature drops below 40°C. During the initial charging process, except for special circumstances, no interruption is allowed within 20h. ④ Adjust the electrolyte level and liquid level. When the battery is close to fully charged, the density and liquid level of the electrolyte must be adjusted once. When the density is higher than the specified value, a part of the electrolyte should be properly taken out and added with a world amount of distilled water. On the contrary, an electrolyte with a density of 1.40g/cm3 should be added to make the liquid level reach the specified value, and then recharge for 30 minutes. If it still does not meet the requirements, the adjustment should be repeated several times until the adjustment is good. If the new battery fails to reach the rated capacity after the first charge, a charge-discharge cycle should be performed. That is, use the 20h discharge rate (that is, the current of 1/20 of the rated capacity) to discharge until the single cell voltage drops to 1.75V, and then use the normal current to fully. Generally, after 3 cycles of charging and discharging, the capacity of the battery can reach 100%. (2) Normal charging of the battery The battery is normally charged under the following conditions: ①The battery appears to be insufficient on the machine. ②The battery has been discharged at low current for a long time. ③The storage battery can be stored indoors for more than 1 month. ④ The electrolyte consumes too much or the water evaporates too much, and a lot of distilled water is added. ⑤The battery has been overhauled, and the plates have been exposed to the air for a long time. ⑥ The battery discharge exceeds 25% in winter and 50% in summer. (3) Equalization charging of the battery When the battery cell terminal voltage, electrolyte density, capacity, etc. have different differences, the equalization charging method can be used to eliminate this difference. First use the normal charging method for charging. After the terminal voltage of the battery is stable, stop charging for 1 hour, switch to 1/20 of C20 current for charging, charge for 2 hours, and stop for 1 hour. Repeat 3 times, until you see that the cells of the battery immediately generate bubbles immediately after charging.