1. Lead powder Lead-acid batteries mainly focus on capacity, and it is the active material that determines the capacity. Lead powder is the most important raw material in the active material of lead-acid batteries
. To a certain extent, the quality of lead powder directly affects the capacity and life of the battery. Because Pb is easily oxidized to PbO, the main components in lead powder are PbO and Pb, and PbO accounts for the majority, and PbO is also the material that is converted into active substances and plays a major role. The so-called oxidation degree refers to the weight percentage of PbO in the lead powder. Too high and too low oxidation will have a great impact on the battery. The high degree of oxidation may be the same as the result caused by the high density of sulfuric acid. Although the initial capacity of the battery will increase, along with it, the electrode plates will also have cracks, peeling and other undesirable phenomena. On the contrary, the degree of oxidation is low, and the paste tends to be loose and poorly adhered during mixing. At the same time, the electrode plate is also prone to bend and deform. Therefore, it is extremely important to control the oxidation degree of lead powder within the specified process range and meet the process requirements. 2. Alloy factor Generally speaking, the grid material used in maintenance-free batteries is Pb-Ca-Sn alloy. Ca can change the strength of the grid, and the addition of Sn improves the casting performance of the alloy, and at the same time increases the hydrogen evolution overpotential of the grid and improves the corrosion resistance of the grid. Generally, the content of Ca is between 0.04% and 0.1%, and the content of Sn is between 0.8% and 2%. After the experiment, Yang Wenbing and Xia Peng found that Ca-0.084% and Sn-1.3%, or Ca-0.075% and Sn-1.42% , these two ratios are more suitable for production. However, the ratio of Ca to Sn may not be the same for different manufacturers. We cannot simply judge who is suitable and who is not, but there is always an optimal ratio of Ca and Sn, which can prolong the life of the battery as much as possible. 3. The influence of acid concentration For the specific gravity of the injected sulfuric acid, I think it is a very important parameter. At present, domestic manufacturers of storage batteries are not all the same in choosing the specific gravity of injected sulfuric acid, and some are a little higher. The specific gravity of the injected sulfuric acid directly affects the initial capacity of the battery and affects the service life of the battery. If the specific gravity of sulfuric acid is high, the initial capacity will be higher. Choosing sulfuric acid with a high specific gravity, although the initial capacity of the battery is high, it meets the discharge requirements within a certain period of time, which seems to show that the design capacity of the battery is far beyond the rated capacity, but the corrosion of the grid is intensified. This is why some batteries have insufficient capacity as a whole in just a few years after being put into use. I personally think that when the electrolyte specific gravity after the battery formation exceeds 1.300g/cm3, the service life of the battery will be significantly shortened.
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