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Things to pay attention to when charging electric vehicles
What should be paid attention to when charging an electric vehicle:
1. Charge when the power indicator shows the remaining one-third of the power.
2. The charging environment should be kept dry and tidy. Don't wrap the charger in plastic bags or plastic bottles, because the charger is easily burned when it is unable to breathe.
3. Try not to use fast charging, if not necessary, do not use more than twice in a month.
4. Place the charger in a fixed place, don’t bump it, even if you carry it, you must fully consider the bumps and cause the malfunction.
5. Use the standard charger to charge.
Charging methods and precautions for electric vehicles:
1. Constant current charging. Constant current charging means that when the battery is charged, the method of segmented constant current is used for charging, and the current is achieved by adjusting the charging device. Its main feature is that the charging method has greater adaptability, and the charging current can be arbitrarily selected and adjusted.
Therefore, it can charge batteries in various situations and states (such as initial charging of new batteries, supplementary charging of used batteries, and desulfurization charging, etc.). It is particularly suitable for a long-term charging mode with a small current, charging a battery pack with many batteries connected in series, and is conducive to the charging of batteries with slower capacity recovery.
However, because the charging current in the initial stage of the charging method is too small, and the charging current is too large in the later stage of the charging, the entire charging process takes a long time, and there is a lot of gas evolution. The board has large impact, high energy consumption, low efficiency (not more than 65%), and the entire charging process must be supervised by someone. Therefore, it should only be used when the battery is initially charged and when a long-term low-current desulfurization charge is required.
When using the constant current charging method, you should pay attention to the following:
(1) Since the constant current charging is a segmented constant current charging, it is necessary to avoid excessive current during the later stage of charging. , The charging current should be adjusted in time. In addition, the size of the charging current, the charging time, the timing of the conversion current, and the selection of the charging termination voltage must be strictly implemented in the charging specifications;
(2) The remaining capacity of the charged batteries should be close, otherwise the charging The current must be selected according to the battery with the smallest remaining capacity in the series battery pack, and when the small-capacity battery is sufficient, it should be removed immediately before continuing to charge the large-capacity battery;
(3) During the charging process, every Detect the battery cell voltage once every 2～3h, if the voltage has reached the second stage of charging;
(4) When the electrolyte temperature rises to 40℃ during the charging process, the charging current should Halve, if it continues to rise to 45℃, it should stop, and the charging can be continued after the temperature drops below 40℃;
(5) The density of charged battery electrolyte should meet the specified requirements, and The density difference of the electrolyte between the single cells shall not exceed;
(6) Maintenance-free storage batteries are not suitable for charging with this method.
2. Constant voltage charging. Constant voltage charging means that each single battery is charged with a certain constant voltage (usually the number of cells per cell ×). Its main characteristics are: the initial charge current is quite large, the battery electromotive force and the relative density of the electrolyte rise rapidly, and the charge current gradually decreases with the continuation of the charge, and only a small current passes in the end of the charge.
The charging time is short and the energy consumption is low. Generally, the battery can obtain 90%-95% of its own capacity after charging for 4 to 5 hours; if the charging voltage is selected properly, the entire charging process can be completed in 8 hours, and the entire The charging process does not require human attention, so it is widely used in supplementary charging.
The disadvantage of constant voltage charging is: because the initial charging current is too large, when charging a battery with a too large depth of discharge, it will cause the initial charging current to rise sharply, which is easy to cause overcurrent of the charged battery and charging equipment Damage, etc.; during the charging process, since the charging current cannot be adjusted, it is not suitable for the initial charging and desulfurization charging of the battery; because it is difficult to compensate for the change in the battery voltage during the charging process, the full charge of the battery with a slower capacity recovery It's hard to complete.
The following items should be paid attention to when using the constant voltage charging method:
(1) Choose the charging voltage correctly. If the charging voltage is too high, it will cause the charging current to be too large in the initial stage of charging, and in severe cases, it will cause the plate to bend, a large amount of active material will fall off, and the battery temperature will rise too high. If it is too low, the battery will be undercharged, resulting in reduced capacity and shortened life; (2) The terminal voltage of the battery to be charged must be exactly the same.
3. Balance charging. For battery packs composed of many single cells, such as stationary storage batteries, after a certain period of operation, they must be balanced and charged regularly. This is because when charging is usually carried out under the same conditions, the active material in each part of the electrode plate has a different degree of charging, as a result, the active material reacts unevenly. In addition, considering that some of the charging and discharging characteristics of the single cells are different, some single cells will have an undercharged state.
Therefore, after the normal charging is over, continue to recharge for 1 to 3 hours with a current of about 20h. This charging is also called overcharging. When the battery is usually used under the same conditions, it is beneficial to regularly charge the battery for maintenance.
The length of the equalization charge interval varies from user to user, and some require it to be performed every three months or half a year. According to the advancement of battery design and manufacturing technology, the characteristics of the battery are not much different, so there is a tendency to extend the interval of equalizing charging.
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