The importance of lead-acid battery internal resistance monitoring

by:Power Kingdom     2021-06-12
Tags: The importance of lead-acid battery internal resistance monitoring During the discharge process of lead-acid batteries, the initial voltage drop follows Ohm’s law Vu003dIR, I is the discharge current, and R is the total internal resistance of the battery. The greater the initial voltage drop, the closer the voltage is to the final termination voltage, thus reducing the battery life. As the discharge process progresses, the three active materials (sulfuric acid, positive electrode and negative electrode paste) begin to undergo electrochemical transformation. The decrease in the utilization rate of the paste and the leakage of the electrolyte will inhibit the discharge reaction, thereby causing the battery voltage to drop faster. Lead-acid batteries are depleted in design. Compared with paste, the ampere-hour capacity of the electrolyte is small, so the discharge process is often restricted by the electrolyte. If the resistance value is proportional to the utilization of the active material or the available electrolyte, the relationship with the discharge capacity can be improved. For any new battery, R is usually not linearly related to discharge capacity. Electrolyte saturation, completeness of formation (especially on the surface of the plate), the contact area of u200bu200bthe separator-plate interface, and the slight change in pressure all have a small effect on the resistance, but may have a great impact on the discharge process. . A small increase in the initial electrolyte volume will only slightly decrease the total resistance R of the battery. However, due to the lack of acid, a slight increase in the volume of the electrolyte will lead to an extension of the discharge time, and there will be differences between the batteries in the 12V battery pack. The measurement of resistance and open circuit voltage can be used to find out those unqualified batteries: their voltage drops too fast, beyond the normal range. The main defects of these unqualified products are generally poor top connection, too little electrolyte volume, air leakage or short circuit. During battery use, these non-design defects can be easily measured by resistance and open circuit voltage methods. Many battery manufacturers use the open circuit voltage method and discharge load method for final quality inspection of battery products, and users can also use this method to inspect battery products during the receiving, installation and entire use process. All lead-acid batteries have a certain service life, which is due to the corrosion of the positive grid, especially in the process of floating charge and discharge. Increasing the quality of the positive grid or reducing its corrosion rate can prolong the service life of the battery. The positive electrode grid is the conductive and supporting framework of the positive electrode paste. Corrosion not only increases the resistance of the positive electrode grid, but also thickens the grid, thereby losing electrical contact with the paste. The negative grid will not be corroded. Other design parameters, such as electrolyte volume, degree of separator compression and composition, air permeability of the battery case, vent design, physicochemical parameters and manufacturing parameters of the paste can all affect the life. As the positive electrode grid corrodes and the electrolyte in the separator is depleted, the battery resistance increases and the battery capacity decreases. Both of these conditions will cause a drop in the initial voltage and a decrease in available active materials. Periodic R measurement can track these changes and find non-conforming products. The relationship curve between battery capacity and life is similar to the relationship curve between voltage and discharge time. At first, the curve is relatively flat, but then it drops rapidly with time. In an uninterruptible power supply, due to the small number of battery checks and discharges, the battery capacity is likely to have fallen below 80% of the rated capacity during the two tests. If the internal resistance test method is adopted, these problems can be easily found and system reliability can be improved.
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