How to maintain and maintain lead-acid batteries

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-27
Lead-acid batteries are widely used in automobiles, frequency converters, backup power systems, etc. Unlike tubular and maintenance-free batteries, lead-acid batteries require proper care and maintenance to extend their service life. Lead-acid batteries consist of a series of plates immersed in a sulfuric acid solution. These plates have a grid on which active materials are attached. The polar plate is divided into a positive plate and a negative plate. The positive plate contains pure lead as an active material, and lead oxide adheres to the negative plate.     For connection, all positive plates are connected in series, and one end is exposed as a positive terminal. Likewise, all negative plates are connected together and connected to the negative terminal. Start or start is also called SLI (Start Light Ignition) battery, which can provide high current to start the engine in cars and generators. Compared with other lead-acid batteries, they have more plates. Deep cycle batteries are designed for many charge/discharge cycles and have thicker plates.     A fully charged battery can discharge its current when connected to a load. During the discharge process, sulfuric acid combines with the active materials on the positive and negative plates, resulting in the formation of lead sulfate. In this process, hydrogen atoms from sulfuric acid react with oxygen to form water. This causes electrons to be released from the positive plate, which will be accepted by the negative plate. This causes an electric potential to develop across the battery. The electrolyte in lead-acid batteries is a mixture of sulfuric acid and water with a specific specific gravity. The specific gravity is the weight of the acid-water mixture compared to an equivalent amount of water. The specific gravity of pure free ion water is 1.   Inside the battery, there are arrays of battery cells called batteries. In a 12-volt battery, there are six batteries, and each battery has a rated voltage of 2 volts. The current transmission capacity of lead-acid batteries is usually expressed as Ah (Ampere Hour). One Ah is equal to 3600 Coulombs of charge. Ah is the ability of a battery to provide 1 ampere of current in 1 hour. Therefore, a 100Ah battery can provide 1 ampere of current for 100 hours. The battery rating is based on the discharge rate through the load within a certain period of time. For example, a 100Ah battery is discharged for 20 hours at a rate of 5 amps. The battery cycle is defined as a complete discharge and charge cycle. This cycle is usually discharged from its 100% charge to 20% charge, and then from 20% to 100%. If you discharge and charge the battery regularly, you can make the battery healthy. Discharging deeply to 50% and then recharging to 100% every day will increase battery life. Therefore, it is best to discharge and charge the inverter and emergency battery every day or at least every two days. Starting and recharging the car battery every day can extend its service life.    Adding water is another important aspect of battery maintenance. When the battery is discharged and charged, a violent chemical reaction occurs and heat is generated. This will evaporate the water inside the battery and the specific gravity of the electrolyte will change. Therefore, if the water level drops below the required water level, you must use ion-free distilled water to add water to the battery. Do not add too much water, as it may short-circuit the battery plates. If the battery is not used, 4% self-discharge occurs every week. For example, if discharging through the load is not allowed, the 125Ah inverter battery will self-discharge with a current of 5 amps per week.     In order to keep the battery in good condition, the battery must be balanced. Due to aging, all batteries charge unevenly. Some batteries charge quickly, while others charge slowly. Equalization can be done by overcharging the battery slightly so that the weaker battery is also fully charged. The terminal voltage of a fully charged 12-volt car battery is 13.8 volts, while the battery voltage of a 12-volt tubular battery is 14.8 volts.  Vulcanization is another factor that affects battery efficiency. During the discharge process, lead sulfate will be formed, which will accumulate on the board. This prevents the discharge and acceptance of electric charges. However, these lead sulfate crystals will be removed during water injection and charging, so it is best to charge immediately after filling with water. If lead sulfate accumulates too much, a desulfurization device must be used for desulfurization (it provides current pulses to remove lead sulfate crystals). It is also possible to remove lead sulfate by removing the electrolyte from the battery, then washing it with distilled water and filling it with fresh acidic water.
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