1. Sulfidation phenomenon The discharge capacity of lead-acid batteries is reduced; the terminal voltage drops faster, and the electrolyte density is lower than the normal value. When testing with a high-rate discharge meter, the single-cell terminal voltage drops sharply. The capacity is obviously insufficient, the start-up performance is reduced, and the start-up is used once or twice to run weak. Charging performance drops, the electrolyte temperature rises too fast during charging, and the voltage of a single cell battery can reach 2.8~2.9V. After the battery is vulcanized, lead sulfate is difficult to decompose, so the bubbles appear earlier when the battery is charged, and even bubbles appear at the beginning of the charging; the electrolyte density does not reach the specified standard. The electrolyte density is lower than the normal value, and it is low for a long time. During the charging process, the battery voltage is too high in the initial and final stages, which can reach more than 2.7 V. After the plate is vulcanized, the internal resistance of the battery increases, and the electrolyte temperature rises quickly during charging, easily exceeding 45°C. The color of the plate is abnormal, the positive plate is light brown (sometimes white), and the negative plate becomes off-white. Sometimes when you open the filler cap, you can see the frost on the plate. When the lead-acid battery
is discharged, the voltage drops too fast (when using a low discharge rate), it can drop to 1.8 V within 1 to 2 hours, that is, it drops to the end voltage prematurely. When dissecting the battery, it can be found that the surface of the negative plate is very rough, and there is a feeling of sand when touched; the surface of the positive and negative plates becomes hard and sandy. Sulfation is serious, and the white crystals of lead sulfate formed on the electrode plates are large and cannot be restored to lead dioxide or spongy lead under normal circumstances. 2. Prevention points The prevention and desulfurization of batteries should be based on prevention. Take active measures according to the objective law of plate vulcanization to avoid the occurrence of vulcanization. (1) According to the change of seasons and regions, choose the electrolyte density correctly, and keep the liquid level 10~15 mm above the edge of the electrode plate. When the liquid level is lowered, if it is not caused by leakage, distilled water should be added instead of electrolyte. Otherwise, the density of electrolyte will become larger and larger, which is not only easy to vulcanize, but also accelerates the corrosion and damage of electrode plates and separators. . (2) If the storage time of the battery exceeds 1 month, it should be charged once a month. When the battery is found to be slightly vulcanized, the battery should be charged and discharged as soon as possible to eliminate vulcanization. (3) The battery should be kept in a fully charged state as often as possible, but it should be discharged and quickly charged after discharging, and lead sulfate should not be recrystallized. Always maintain the normal operation of the charging system, discover the faults of the generator and regulator in time, and eliminate them immediately, so as to fundamentally eliminate the root causes of vulcanization. Recharge regularly. (4) Avoid high current discharge at low temperature. When the cold machine is started in winter or when the temperature is low, the start-up time should not exceed 5s each time to avoid low-temperature high-current discharge. In northern my country and some alpine mountainous areas, this point should be paid more attention to when the temperature is lower than -30℃. 3. Treatment method When the irreversible sulfation degree of the lead battery plate is determined, it can be treated separately according to the degree of sulfate hardening of the plate. (1) 'Hydrotherapy' adopts water treatment method for the serious vulcanization of the plate: after the battery is charged, it is discharged with a discharge current at a rate of 10 hours and discharged to the termination voltage of 1.80 V, and then the electrolyte in the battery is poured out immediately. Add distilled water and let stand for 1~2 h. Then charge with 20h rate charging current until the electrolyte density reaches 1.120g/cm3, reduce the charging current to 1/5 of the 10h rate charging current and continue charging until the surface of the plate is evenly gassed and the electrolyte density no longer rises. You can stop charging. Then discharge at 1/5 of the discharge current at a rate of 10 hours, repeat charging and discharging many times until all the plates are normal, and adjust the electrolyte density to the specified value before delivery. If the plate is severely vulcanized, the elimination of vulcanization may sometimes take 3 to 4 weeks. (2) Low-current charging method When the irreversible sulfation of the lead-acid battery plate is not too serious, a small current can be used, that is, half or less of the charging current value in the second stage for long-term charging until the voltage is reached. And the electrolyte density reaches the specified standard (the charging current is small, the voltage is low), and the electrolyte density and liquid level height can be adjusted to use. First add distilled water to the battery to dilute the electrolyte so that the liquid level is 20mm above the edge of the electrode plate. Then charge with a 2h rate charging current until bubbles appear. The voltage of the single cell battery is above 2.5V. Stop charging for 0.5h to make the electrolyte spread evenly. Then use V4 with a 10h rate charging current to continue charging until there are a lot of bubbles. If it appears, stop charging for another 0.5h. This is repeated many times, namely: charging-stopping charging-recharging-stopping charging again, usually for several days and nights, until the electrolyte reaches the specified normal value and remains stable. Sometimes when encountering individual lead storage batteries, because the density of the perfused sulfuric acid electrolyte is too high and the time left for too long after use, such lead storage batteries generally have serious irreversible sulfation, and the effective materials of the plates are not easy to recover, even after treatment Although it is effective, it is difficult to restore the original discharge capacity, and the service life is also short. (3) Overcharge method When the degree of vulcanization of the plate is relatively light, continue to charge with a current of half of the normal charging rate until the voltage and electrolyte density reach the maximum value, and then continue to charge. Measure and record the terminal voltage and electrolyte density of the battery every 0.5h. There is no change for 2h continuously, that is, the recorded value is the same for 4 consecutive times. When recharging, if bubbles occur within 10 minutes, it can be considered that the processing has been completed.
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