Basic structure of lead-acid battery

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-23
1. Basic structure: positive and negative plates (1) ●The plates of lead-acid batteries can be divided into four categories according to the structure and the formation method of active materials: paste-type plates, tube-type plates, and formed-type plates. Semi-formed polar plate. ●Paste-coated electrode plate (paste-coated electrode plate) is composed of grid and active material. ●The function of the grid is to support the active material and conduct the current to make the current distribution uniform. ●The material of the grid is generally lead-antimony alloy, and the maintenance-free battery uses lead-calcium alloy. ●The main component of the positive active material is lead dioxide, and the main component of the negative active material is velvet lead. Separator (2) ●Battery separator is made of microporous rubber, pigmented glass fiber and other materials. Its main function is to prevent short circuit of positive and negative plates. ■ Make the positive and negative ions in the electrolyte pass smoothly. ■Stop the active material of the positive and negative plates from falling off, and prevent the positive and negative plates from being damaged by vibration. ●Therefore, the separator is required to have high porosity, small pore size, acid resistance, no secretion of harmful impurities, certain strength, low resistance in the electrolyte, and chemical stability. Electrolyte (3) ●Electrolyte is an important part of the battery, and its function is to conduct current and participate in electrochemical reactions. ●The electrolyte is made up of concentrated sulfuric acid and purified water (towards ionized water). The purity and density of the electrolyte have an important impact on battery capacity and life. ●The lead-acid battery for automobiles uses dilute sulfuric acid with an electrolyte density of 1.280±0.005g/cm3 (25°C). Battery case and cover (4) ●Battery case and cover are containers for holding positive and negative plates and electrolyte, which are generally made of plastic and rubber materials. Exhaust plug (5) ●Usually made of plastic material, it seals the battery, prevents air from entering, and prevents oxidation of the electrode plate. At the same time, the gas generated in the battery can be discharged out of the battery during charging, so as to avoid the danger of the battery. ●Before use: The blind hole on the exhaust plug must be pierced with iron wire to ensure that the gas overflows smoothly. Others: In addition to the above components, the battery also has parts such as chains (6), poles (7), saddles (8), and liquid level indicators.
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