Why the longer the lead-acid battery is used, the lower the actual capacity?

by:Power Kingdom     2021-06-14
Label: Why the longer the lead-acid battery is used, the lower the actual capacity? The electrode plate is an important component that determines the capacity of the lead-acid battery, and the main raw material of the electrode plate is lead. We can look at the principle of lead-acid batteries. When discharging as shown in the figure below, the lead dioxide in the anode and the spongy lead in the cathode react with the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte to become lead sulfate and water, and the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. come out. When charging, the yin and yang lead sulfate is respectively converted into lead dioxide and spongy lead, which converts electrical energy into chemical energy for storage. We can see from the structure of the lead-acid battery that the positive plate of the lead-acid battery is the main factor affecting the working life of the battery. The capacity of the lead-acid battery charge-discharge cycle, especially the capacity drop under deep cycle is closely related to the quality deviation of the positive plate. The corrosion rate of the grid depends on the composition of the grid alloy, but the higher the storage temperature, the faster the corrosion rate, and the deeper the depth of discharge, the more severe the corrosion. From the perspective of the chemical reaction of lead-acid batteries. In the normal operation of the battery, the PbSO4 particles on the negative plate are small, and the discharge can easily return to velvet lead, but sometimes lead sulfate is generated inside the battery which is difficult to reduce, which is called sulfation. There are many reasons for the salting of the negative electrode, such as the inability to charge in time after discharge, long-term storage of the battery, causing serious self-discharge, excessive electrolyte concentration, insufficient long-term charging, and long-term discharge at high temperature. This lead sulfate is difficult to reduce by conventional methods. In this way, the reduction of active materials will inevitably affect the capacity of lead-acid batteries. Therefore, even if you maintain the battery, the loss of the battery during use will cause the capacity of the lead-acid battery to decrease.
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