are mostly external faults of the battery caused by improper maintenance and use, such as shell and cover cracks, dry sealing glue, loose pole piles and corrosion, etc.; internal faults include plate vulcanization, self-discharge, internal short-circuit, and activation Material shedding, plate arching, etc.
One, the form of battery damage The failure of the battery in use. When using, it should mainly prevent over-discharge and over-charge. Excessive discharge will vulcanize the electrode plate, and the active material on the electrode plate will form red PbSO4 crystals that cannot participate in the chemical reaction. This is one of the reasons for the early damage of the battery; at the same time, the excessive discharge caused by the large current, such as using too much starter , The high-current discharge time is too long, and the supplementary charge cannot be obtained in time, which causes the plate to be bent, the partition is damaged, and the battery is in a bad state. When overcharged, electric energy electrolyzes water, generating hydrogen and oxygen, causing the pores of the electrode plate to generate a certain pressure, and the active material of the electrode plate falls off and cannot be saved.
2. Factors that affect battery capacity The factors that affect battery capacity include: the structure of the plate, the size of the discharge current, the temperature of the electrolyte, and the density of the electrolyte, among which the charge, The discharge current and temperature have the greatest influence. If the charging and discharging current is too large, the active material on the plate will change in appearance, and the capacity will be reduced a lot. The drop in temperature will cause poor electrolyte fluidity, shrinkage of the plate, slow chemical changes, and increase the internal resistance of the battery. If the temperature drops by 1°C at 30°C, the capacity will drop by about 1%, and its internal resistance will also increase. Therefore, in severe cold areas, when the temperature is below -20°C, the capacity has dropped to 60%, and the internal resistance has increased. The engine often fails to start, and the battery power is often lacking. Excessive discharge is prone to occur in severe cold regions, while overcharge problems often occur in temperate regions. Therefore, in order to use the battery well, it is necessary to grasp the law of its use according to the local climatic conditions and the actual situation. To charge the battery, it is necessary to choose an appropriate method according to different situations and use the charging equipment correctly, so as to increase the battery capacity and prolong the service life of the battery.
Third, the commonly used charging methods for batteries are: constant current charging, constant voltage charging and pulse fast charging. The batteries in use often have insufficient charging. Need to recharge regularly. In order to maintain a certain capacity of the battery and prolong its life, it is necessary to carry out overcharging and cycling exercise charging. In order to eliminate the vulcanization failure of the plate, it is necessary to carry out devulcanization charging and so on. The charging current in the first stage of the initial charge is reduced by half of the charging current in the second stage of 1/15 of its rated capacity. The charging current of the first stage of supplementary charging is 1/10 of its rated capacity and the second stage is reduced by half; the characteristic of full charge of lead storage battery is that the terminal voltage rises to the maximum value of about 2.7v, and does not increase within 2h-3h; A large number of bubbles occur in the battery, and the electrolyte is boiling.
Fourth, the correct use and maintenance of the battery The contents of the correct use and maintenance of the battery include: 1 Analyze the power consumption of the machine, and control the terminal voltage of the generator within the specified range Inside. For example: machinery that often works during the day has a long charging time and short discharge time. To prevent overcharging, the charging current should be appropriately reduced; machinery that works at night and frequently started vehicles should prevent overdischarge and try to adjust the charging current appropriately. Make it larger; it should be fully charged when parked, so that it can be used next time. 2 Pay attention to the temperature conditions of machinery or vehicle work. In cold areas, we must pay attention to the heat preservation of the battery, and choose the density of the electrolyte reasonably to keep it in a state of sufficient electricity. Filling with distilled water should be done during charging to prevent freezing. Before starting, the engine should be warmed up, and the starter should be used correctly. Each start time should not exceed 5S. Restart should be repeated at an interval of 15S. It should not start twice in a row, and the fault should be eliminated before starting. 3 Strengthen the maintenance of batteries. If it is only used, not maintained, and the battery has poor operating conditions (large vibration, dust pollution), the consequences are obvious. The contents of the maintenance of the battery include: ① Maintain the external cleanliness of the battery, and often remove the dust and dirt on the battery cover. The overflowing electrolyte helps prevent self-discharge. ② Regularly check the small holes on the battery cover to keep them unobstructed; if the small holes are blocked, the generated gas will burst the battery. ③. The battery device is required to be reliable. When the machine is driving bumpy on uneven roads, the battery must not be bumped up and down in the device seat. The bottom of the battery should be padded with rubber anti-vibration gaskets to prevent the shell from cracking, loosening of the terminal and internal pole The board is damaged. In addition to checking that the device is firm, attention should also be paid to removing the oxides and sulfates produced by the battery clips. You can apply petroleum jelly after cleaning and scraping the rust to prevent re-corrosion. Always check the wire joints to ensure reliable contact. ④. Check the electrolyte level frequently. The electrolyte in the battery will be reduced as it is decomposed and naturally evaporated during charging. After the electrode plate is exposed to the liquid surface, the exposed part will be quickly vulcanized, thereby reducing the battery capacity, even if the electrolyte is added and then submerged , It is also difficult to restore the original shape of the vulcanized part of the polar plate. Therefore, you should check the height of the liquid level in the battery in time and add distilled water or electrolyte at the right time.