The failure modes of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries
. For valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, the usual performance deterioration mechanisms are as follows. When the open-ended lead-acid battery
is charged, in addition to the regeneration of the active material, the water in the sulfuric acid electrolyte is gradually electrolyzed to generate hydrogen and oxygen. When the gas flows from the vent of the battery cover to the atmosphere, 11.7 kcal of heat is generated per 18 grams of water decomposition. For valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, the internal oxygen generated during charging flows to the negative electrode. The active material spongy lead oxidizes and effectively replenishes the water lost by electrolysis. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries rely on the heat conduction of the shell wall to dissipate heat. Good ventilation and low room temperature are important conditions for battery installation. In order to further reduce the risk of thermal runaway, the float voltage usually depends on different manufacturers and different room temperatures. Manufacturers generally give the float voltage and temperature compensation coefficient of the battery. In valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, the deterioration of this form of performance is inherently more serious. Due to the oxygen cycle reaction, the negative active material is continuously oxidized to produce lead sulfate, which effectively maintains the discharge state, thereby reducing the potential of the negative plate. For a given float charge voltage, the potential of the positive plate group is correspondingly higher. As a result, the oxidizing atmosphere is intensified, causing more oxygen to be precipitated, and the valve-regulated lead-acid battery intensifies the corrosion and shedding of the active material.
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