The composition and working principle of lead-acid batteries
Lead-acid batteries are composed of positive plates, negative plates, separators, electrolyte, and plastic tanks. The positive active material of lead-acid batteries is lead dioxide (PbO2), the negative active material is lead (Pb), the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid, the positive and negative electrodes are separated by a separator, and the ions in the electrolyte can pass through the separator. The electrons on the electrode cannot pass through the separator. After the lead-acid battery is discharged, the active material lead dioxide (PbO2) of the positive plate is converted into lead sulfate (PbSO4) and adheres to the positive plate, and the negative active material lead (Pb) is also converted to lead sulfate (PbSO4) and adheres to the negative electrode. The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte diffuses into the electrode plate, and the concentration of the electrolyte decreases. When a lead-acid battery is charged, the opposite reaction occurs. Through charging and discharging reactions, the lead-acid battery can be used repeatedly until the storage capacity does not meet the requirements of the electrical appliance, and its life ends. Global lead-acid battery market scale analysis In the past ten years, with the development of the world energy economy and the improvement of people’s living standards, the application fields of lead-acid batteries have been continuously expanded, and the market demand has also increased significantly. Among the power sources, lead-acid batteries have accounted for more than 85% of the market share. According to data, the global lead-acid battery market in 2011 was only 37.21 billion U.S. dollars. By 2016, the global lead-acid battery market was 43.75 billion U.S. dollars and reached 44.23 billion U.S. dollars in 2017. It is expected that the global lead-acid battery market will grow in 2018. Up to 44.52 billion US dollars. The industry will maintain steady and slow growth in the next five years, and the global lead-acid battery market is expected to reach 45.98 billion U.S. dollars in 2020. 2011-2020 global lead-acid battery market scale statistics and forecast Data source: Qianzhan Industry Research Institute sorts out the global lead-acid battery production regional structure Data source: Qianzhan Industry Research Institute sorts lead-acid battery segment market demand overview Lead-acid batteries as The oldest chemical power source, enduring for a long time, is widely used in telecommunications, power systems, computer systems and automation control systems, emergency lighting and other backup power battery fields, new energy and energy storage batteries, automobiles, ships, motorcycles, Starter batteries for tanks, tractors, and diesel engines, and power batteries for electric bicycles, electric vehicles, electric tricycles, electric forklifts, and golf carts. my country's lead-acid battery supply and demand situation my country is the world's largest lead-acid battery producer, consumer and exporter. The lead-acid battery industry in my country mainly implements production based on sales. The production volume of lead-acid batteries minus the export volume is roughly the domestic consumption volume. In 2016, China’s lead-acid battery output was 223.53 million kVA, and the domestic demand for lead-acid batteries was 2016.68 million kVA. From 2005 to 2016, the output of domestic companies’ lead-acid batteries showed a fluctuating growth, with an average annual compound The growth rate reached 10.17%. It is estimated that by 2018, the domestic lead-acid battery production will reach 235.98 million kVAh, and the domestic demand for lead-acid batteries will reach 21.05 million kVAh. During the 'Thirteenth Five-Year Plan' period, the compound growth rate of lead-acid battery output is expected to be 10.76%. It is estimated that by 2022, the domestic lead-acid battery output will reach 273.59 million kVA, and the domestic demand for lead-acid batteries will reach 257.79 million kVA. Time. 2016-2022 China's lead-acid battery supply and demand statistics and forecast data source: Qianzhan Industry Research Institute sorts out upstream high-end battery manufacturers with strong bargaining power. The upstream of the lead-acid battery industry includes lead, sulfuric acid, plastics, etc., and the lead-acid battery industry’s raw materials The demand for lead and sulfuric acid is large, the lead and sulfuric acid industries as a whole show overcapacity, and battery manufacturing is an important downstream application field of lead, so the lead-acid battery industry has strong bargaining power for lead and sulfuric acid. While the supply of plastics is in short supply, the battery industry has higher requirements for the characteristics of plastics, and therefore the bargaining power of the plastics industry is low. The upstream of lead-acid batteries is mainly raw materials and other industries, which are greatly affected by price fluctuations. Lead-acid battery raw materials from 2015 to January 2018-the lead price increase trend is obvious. Data source: Prospective Industry Research Institute, public data compilation and downstream demand to promote industrial upgrading, lead-acid battery industry barriers appear, high-end battery bargaining power my country's lead-acid batteries In recent years, with the pull of downstream demand, the industry has achieved good profitability and maintained a relatively high level of profitability, which is highly attractive to potential entrants. At the same time, the state has issued a series of related policies to standardize the industry, which has raised the barriers to entry for the industry, and industry barriers have emerged. The downstream industries are mainly automobiles, electric vehicles, communications, new energy, etc. The current lead-acid battery industry has relatively low bargaining power, but manufacturers of high-end lead-acid battery products have relatively high bargaining power. The lead-acid battery market segment is fiercely competitive, and scale advantage is the key. The domestic lead-acid battery market is relatively concentrated. The chemical-powered lead-acid battery production industry is more competitive. The price competition and the increase in cost of products make the net profit margins of major manufacturers in the industry. Both are greatly reduced. As residents’ requirements for battery performance continue to rise, the country’s increasing emphasis on environmental protection, and the industry’s rising barriers to entry, companies with large-scale advantages in the industry will gain more development opportunities and can further expand through production expansion and mergers and acquisitions. Scale, industry concentration will be improved.
One increasingly popular managerial tactic to improve problem-solving performance of sealed lead acid battery is to increase the connectedness, or what academics call clustering, of the organization
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