The development and application of solar cells

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-29
At present, there are three types of solar cells, monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells, which are widely used internationally. These three kinds of solar cells account for about 1/3 of the market. There are currently 7 solar cell production lines in my country, mainly Monocrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells are produced, and polycrystalline silicon solar cells are also produced in small quantities. The efficiency of my country's production of monocrystalline silicon solar cells is 12-13%, polycrystalline silicon solar cells is 10%, and amorphous silicon solar cells are 5-6%. The research of crystalline silicon solar cells is developing in the direction of high efficiency, thin slice, and large area. In 1995, the reference price of crystalline silicon solar cell modules in my country was 45 yuan/watt, and that of amorphous silicon solar cell modules was 25 yuan/watt, which is still several times that of conventional energy. Has produced good economic benefits. Solar storage battery, also known as photovoltaic cell, is a semiconductor device that can effectively absorb solar radiation energy and convert it into electrical energy. It can be used as a light detection element alone, for example, in a camera, mainly through series and parallel connection to obtain the required voltage and current to be used as a power supply. The appearance of a solar cell is like a thin card or a thin piece of glass. Unlike ordinary batteries, it cannot store electricity by itself, that is, it does not generate electricity when there is no light. If you want to use it at night, it must be Use batteries together.     The area of u200bu200ba solar cell generates about 1 watt of electricity per 100 cm2 under strong sunlight. We often say that 1 kilowatt of electricity is 1 kilowatt hour, that is, 1 kilowatt of such a battery can produce 1 kilowatt of electricity for 1 hour.      Solar photovoltaic power generation can be regarded as the most beautiful, longest-lived and most reliable power generation technology to date. Compared with solar power generation, it also involves semiconductor devices, which have no moving parts and no flowing working medium. Therefore, it avoids the problems of mechanical maintenance and working medium corrosion, and is a reliable energy source for renewable energy and sustainable development.      The development of 12V12AH solar battery silicon solar cells began in 1954 at the Bell Institute of the United States and was successfully trial-produced. The next year it was used as a power source for telecommunications devices. In 1958, it was first applied by the United States and on the 'Pioneer 1' satellite. The development of the universe has greatly promoted the development of solar cells. At the same time, research on ground-based solar cells is also constantly being carried out, especially the energy crisis in 1973, which greatly accelerated the development of ground-based solar cells. Many countries have invested a considerable amount of funds for the development and utilization of solar batteries and the research of solar power generation. Most of the thousands of aircraft flying in space so far are equipped with solar battery systems. The first artificial satellite to the sky is the starting point for the development and utilization of photovoltaic technology. After nearly 50 years of development, it has formed a new photovoltaic science and photovoltaic engineering. Regardless of the application in space flight or the application of ground-based power generation systems, photovoltaic technology is a leader among new energy sources in terms of development speed, technology maturity and application fields.     As a potential renewable energy source, solar cells are gradually being promoted on the ground. The cost and selling price of solar cells are also declining year by year, and the output of solar cells has been increasing at a growth rate of 10-25% over the years. In 1990, the world's output of solar battery modules was 70MW (megawatts), and my country's was 1.2MW, mainly used in remote areas with good sunlight. By 2001, the output of solar cells in the world reached 350MW, the actual output of solar batteries in my country has reached 4.5MW, and the cumulative installed capacity has exceeded 20MW. my country is a developing country with a vast territory, many remote provinces and economically underdeveloped regions. According to statistics, there are currently 7 million households (28 million people) in my country, and electricity is not yet available, and 60% of counties with electricity are severely short of electricity. In these areas, it is impossible to solve the electricity problem with conventional electricity in the short term. Photovoltaic power generation is an ideal way to solve the electricity consumption of scattered farmers and herdsmen, and the market potential is very huge. Photovoltaic power generation has many advantages: such as: safe and reliable, no noise, no pollution, energy is available everywhere, not subject to geographical restrictions, no fuel consumption, no mechanical rotating parts, low failure rate, easy maintenance, unattended operation, and construction period Short, random in scale, no need for transmission lines, and can be easily combined with buildings, etc. These advantages are beyond the reach of other power generation methods.
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