The battery has the advantages of stable voltage, reliable power supply, and convenient movement. It is widely used in power plants, substations, communication systems, electric vehicles, aerospace and other departments. There are three main types of batteries: ordinary lead-acid batteries, alkaline cadmium-nickel batteries and valve-regulated sealed lead-acid batteries. Ordinary lead-acid batteries have limited service life, low efficiency, complicated maintenance, and environmental pollution caused by acid mist, and have been gradually eliminated by valve-regulated sealed lead-acid batteries. The valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery
adopts a sealed structure as a whole, and there is no phenomenon such as gas swelling and electrolyte leakage of ordinary lead-acid batteries. It is safe and reliable in use and has a long life. There is no need to test the electrolyte, adjust the acid and add water during normal operation. Also known as maintenance-free battery. It has been widely used in many fields such as post and telecommunications, ship traffic, emergency lighting and so on. Alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries are characterized by small size, high discharge rate, simple operation and maintenance, and long life. However, their use is restricted due to their low monomer voltage, easy leakage, high cost and easy pollution to the environment. Used in electric tools and various portable electronic devices. Ordinary lead-acid batteries are mainly composed of plates, electrolyte and battery tanks. Both the positive and negative plates are composed of grids and active materials. The active material on the positive plate is brown lead dioxide (PbO2), and the active material on the negative plate is dark gray spongy pure lead (Pb). The electrolyte is made up of distilled water (H2O) and pure sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in a certain proportion. During the charging process, the electrolyte chemically reacts with the active materials on the positive and negative plates, thereby turning electrical energy into chemical energy for storage; during the discharging process, the electrolyte also chemically reacts with the active materials on the positive and negative plates , The chemical energy stored in the battery is converted into electrical energy to supply the load. In order for the chemical reaction to proceed normally, the electrolyte must have a certain concentration. The battery tank is the container of the plate group and the electrolyte. It must have good acid resistance, insulation performance and high mechanical strength. Connect the load between the positive and negative plates of the battery to start the battery discharge process. At this time, the potential of the positive plate drops and the potential of the negative plate rises. The active materials (PbO2 and Pb) on the positive and negative plates are continuously converted into lead sulfate (PbSO4), and the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is gradually converted into water, and the specific gravity of the electrolyte Gradually decrease, so that the internal resistance of the battery increases and the electromotive force decreases. If a DC power supply with a higher output voltage than the battery terminal voltage is connected between the positive and negative plates of the battery, the charging process of the battery will begin. At this time, the positive plate potential rises due to the accumulation of positive charges, and the negative plate potential decreases due to the accumulation of negative charges. The PbSO4 on the positive plate gradually changes to PbO2, and the PbSO4 on the negative plate gradually changes to sponge-like Pb. At the same time, the synthesis of H2SO4 in the electrolyte gradually increases, the water molecules gradually decrease, the specific gravity of the electrolyte gradually increases, and the battery terminal voltage also continues to increase.
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