Rated voltage of lead-acid battery

by:Power Kingdom     2021-07-13

Rated voltage of lead-acid battery

   Simply put, different metals and conductors have different potential differences in acid solutions. The potential difference between lead sulfate and lead oxide in the acid solution is 2, so the lead-acid battery is 2V: 2V is the nominal voltage of the battery, which is related to the electromotive force of the actual battery, the electrode potential of the positive and negative plates of the battery, and the density of the electrolyte.

  The positive electrode of a fully charged lead-acid battery is PbO2, the negative electrode is Pb, and the electrolyte is H2SO4 dilute sulfuric acid solution. Since two different substances have different abilities to lose electrons in the electrolyte, there is a tendency for electrons to transfer from one substance to another. This trend is the electromotive force of the battery. The unit of measurement is volt V. The electromotive force of the battery can be roughly understood as the open circuit voltage of the battery.

   This value is only related to certain physical and chemical properties of the substance. It has nothing to do with the amount of material, geometry, etc. Therefore, as long as it is a lead-acid battery, its electromotive force (open circuit voltage) is about 2V, and we call the nominal voltage of this battery 2V. For a lead-acid battery within the usual range, its terminal voltage can be expressed by the following empirical formula Uu003d among them.

  U: the open circuit voltage of the battery, the unit is V; d: the electrolyte density, the unit g/cm3 The electrolyte density is usually around, so 2V is used to clean the inside of the lead-acid battery The structure of the lead-acid battery has a voltage of 2V and is connected in series through a bridge. If there are 6 single-cell batteries inside the battery, the rated voltage of the battery is 12V. Currently, most electric sweepers use a single 12V battery connected in series.

Moreover, it is difficult to restore it during charging, which directly affects the capacity and life of the storage battery. The charging of lead-acid batteries is the inverse of discharge. The principle equation of the chemical reaction of lead-acid battery charging and discharging is as follows: Positive PbO2+ 2e-+SO42-+4H+u003du003dPbSO4+2H2O negative pole Pb-2e+SO42-u003du003dPbSO4 cathode PbSO4+2e-u003dPb+SO42-; anode PbSO4+2H2O-2e-u003dPbO2+4H++SO42-, total Reaction PbO2+2H2SO4+Pbu003du003d2PbSO4+2H2O (forward discharge, reverse charge) (the quality of both the positive and negative poles of the lead-acid battery increases during discharge. The reason is that when the lead-acid battery is discharged, there is PbSO4 attached to the positive electrode plate, and the quality is negative. PbSO4 is also attached to the plate.


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