Proper use and charging management of acid batteries

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-28
In today’s industry-based society, the application of backup DC power supplies is becoming more and more common. As a storage battery that is a component of the backup DC power supply, its performance status is particularly good for ensuring the normal operation of the backup DC power supply. tension. Among battery families, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more common in DC backup power supplies. Although valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are commonly used in electric power supply, due to the particularity of the layout of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, if you want to extend the service life of the battery as much as possible, you must use the battery accurately and reliably during operation. It becomes very urgent to detect the performance of the battery and to maintain the battery in a targeted manner. Reasonable selection and use of batteries and battery monitoring modules in the current DC power supply system have a great effect on extending the service life of batteries and the normal operation of related configurations, and it is of great significance to obtain the greatest quiet and economic benefits. The failure mechanism of a lead-acid battery The failure study of lead-acid batteries is of great significance to the quiet operation of the power system. We will discuss this issue in a summary to enable readers to have a summary understanding of this issue. 1.1 Battery loss of water Loss of water in lead-acid batteries will increase the specific gravity of the electrolyte, cause the corrosion of the positive grid of the battery, and eliminate the active material of the battery, thereby making the battery capacity low and invalid. The difficulty in sealing lead-acid batteries is the electrolysis of water during charging. When the charging reaches a certain voltage (usually above 2.30V/cell), oxygen is released on the positive electrode of the battery, and hydrogen is released on the negative electrode. On the one hand, the released gas brings out the acid mist to pollute the environment; on the other hand, the water in the electrolyte is eliminated, and water supplement maintenance must be carried out at intervals. Valve-regulated lead-acid battery is a product developed to overcome these shortcomings. Its product features are: (1) Adopt multiple high-quality grid alloys to increase the overpotential of gas release. That is, ordinary battery grid alloy releases gas when it is above 2.30V/cell (25℃). After adopting high-quality multi-element alloys, the gas will be released when the temperature is above 2.35V/single (25℃), thereby relatively eliminating the amount of gas released. (2) Let the negative electrode have excess capacity, that is, 10% more capacity than the positive electrode. In the later stage of charging, the oxygen released by the positive electrode fights with the negative electrode, producing a response, and repeatedly generating water, namely O2+2Pb→2PbO, PbO+H2SO4→H2O+PbSO4, which makes the negative electrode in an undercharged state due to the action of oxygen, and therefore does not produce hydrogen. The oxygen from the positive electrode is drawn by the lead on the negative electrode, and the process of synthesizing water is further transformed into the so-called cathode extraction. (3) In order to make the oxygen released from the positive electrode flow to the negative electrode as quickly as possible, new ultra-fine glass fiber separators different from the microporous rubber separators used in ordinary lead-acid batteries must be used. The porosity is increased from 50% of the rubber separator to more than 90%, so that oxygen can easily flow to the negative electrode and be reconstituted into water. In addition, the ultra-fine glass fiber board has the effect of adsorbing sulfuric acid electrolyte, so the valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery adopts the lean-liquid plan, even if the battery is dumped, there is no electrolyte overflow. (4) Adopt the sealed valve-controlled acid filter layout to prevent acid mist from escaping and achieve the purpose of tranquility and protection of the environment. In the above cathode pumping process, since the water produced by the incubation cannot overflow in a sealed environment, the valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery can be exempted from water replenishment maintenance. This is also the origin of the valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery called the maintenance-free battery. Valve-regulated sealed lead-acid batteries are equipped with acid filter pads, which can effectively guard against the escape of acid mist. However, it is conditional that the sealed battery does not escape gas, that is: no gas should escape during the storage period; no gas should escape if the charging voltage is below 2.35V/cell (25℃); no gas should escape during the discharge period . But when the charging voltage is higher than 2.35V/cell, the gas will probably escape. Because a large amount of gas is generated in the battery body for a short period of time to be absorbed by the negative electrode, when the pressure is higher than a certain value, the one-way exhaust valve is used to exhaust the gas. Although the exhausted gas is filtered by the acid filter, the acid is lost. Fog, however, must actually cause the battery to lose gas, so valve-regulated sealed lead-acid batteries have strict requirements for charging voltage and cannot cause overcharging.
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