Main factors and precautions affecting the service life of lead-acid batteries

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-28
⑴  The ambient temperature has a greater impact on the battery. If the ambient temperature is too high, the battery will be overcharged to produce gas. If the ambient temperature is too low, the battery will be undercharged, which will affect the battery life. Therefore, the ambient temperature is generally required to be around 25°C, and the UPS float voltage value is also set according to this temperature. In practical applications, the battery is generally charged within the range of 5°C to 35°C. Lower than 5°C or higher than 35°C will greatly reduce the capacity of the battery and shorten the service life of the battery.  ⑵ The depth of discharge has a great influence on the battery life. The deeper the discharge depth of the battery, the fewer the number of cycles it uses, so deep discharge should be avoided during use. Although UPS has a battery low-potential protection function, generally when a single battery is discharged to about 10.5V, the UPS will automatically shut down. However, if the UPS is under light-load discharge or no-load discharge, it will also cause deep discharge of the battery.  ⑶ In the process of storage, transportation, and installation, the battery will lose part of its capacity due to self-discharge. Therefore, before putting into use after installation, the remaining capacity of the battery should be judged according to the open circuit voltage of the battery, and then different methods should be used to recharge the battery. The storage battery that has been left on standby shall be recharged every 3 months. You can judge the quality of the battery by measuring the open circuit voltage of the battery. Take a 12V battery as an example. If the open circuit voltage is higher than 12.5V, it means that the battery has more than 80% energy storage. If the open circuit voltage is lower than 12.5V, it should be recharged immediately. If the open circuit voltage is lower than 12V, it means that the battery stores less than 20% of the electric energy and the battery is unusable.  ⑷  The battery charge and discharge current is generally expressed by C, and the actual value of C is related to the battery capacity. For example, a 100AH u200bu200bbattery, Cu003d100A. The best charging current of Panasonic lead-acid maintenance-free batteries is about 0.1C, and the charging current cannot be greater than 0.3C. Excessive or too small charging current will affect the battery life. The discharge current is generally required to be between 0.05C and 3C. The UPS can meet this requirement in normal use, but it is also necessary to prevent accidents such as battery short-circuits.  ⑸  Charging voltage. Because the UPS battery is a backup mode of operation, the mains is in a charging state under normal conditions and will only be discharged when the power fails. In order to prolong the service life of the battery, the UPS charger is generally controlled by a constant voltage and current limiting method. After the battery is fully charged, it will turn to a floating charge state, and the floating charge voltage of each cell is set to about 13.6V. If the charging voltage is too high, the battery will be overcharged, and vice versa, the battery will be undercharged. The abnormal charging voltage may be caused by a wrong battery configuration or caused by a malfunction of the charger. Therefore, when installing the battery, you must pay attention to the correctness of the battery specifications and quantity, and do not mix batteries of different specifications and different batch numbers. Do not use inferior chargers for external chargers, and consider heat dissipation issues when installing. At present, in order to further improve battery life, advanced UPS adopts an ABM (Advanced Battery Management) three-stage intelligent battery management solution, that is, charging is divided into three stages: initial charging, floating charging and rest: the first stage is constant current equalization Charge, charge the battery capacity to 90%; the second stage is floating charge, charge the battery capacity to 100%, and then stop charging; the third stage is natural discharge, in this stage, the battery uses its own leakage current to discharge, Until the specified voltage lower limit, and then repeat the above three stages. This method changes the previous full charge and still keeps the battery in a floating charge state for 24 hours a day, thus prolonging the life of the battery. ⑹ The maintenance-free battery adopts an absorption electrolyte system, so it will not produce any gas during normal use. However, if the user uses improperly and causes the battery to overcharge, gas will be generated. At this time, the internal pressure of the battery will increase and the battery The pressure valve on the top opens, which will cause the battery to burst in serious cases.  ⑺  During the operation of the UPS, pay attention to monitoring the terminal voltage value of the battery pack, the floating charge current value, the voltage value of each battery, the earth resistance and the insulation state of the battery pack and the DC bus.  ⑻  Do not individually increase or decrease the load of several single cells in the battery pack. This will cause imbalance in the capacity of the single cells and uneven charging, and reduce the service life of the battery.  ⑼  The battery should be installed in a clean, cool, ventilated and dry place as much as possible, and avoid the influence of sunlight, heaters or other radiant heat sources. The battery should be placed upright and not inclined at an angle. The terminal connection between each battery should be firm.  ⑽  regular maintenance. The battery should be checked regularly after a certain period of use, such as observing whether its appearance is abnormal, and measuring whether the voltage of each battery is average. If there is no power failure for a long time, the battery will always be charged, which will make the battery's activity worse. Therefore, even if there is no power failure, the UPS needs to conduct regular discharge tests in order to keep the battery active. The discharge test can generally be carried out once every three months. The practice is to load the UPS-preferably above 50%, and then disconnect the mains power to make the UPS in the battery discharge state. The discharge duration is generally from a few ms to the battery capacity. After tens of ms, the mains power supply will be restored after discharging, and the battery will continue to be charged.
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