Lead-acid battery structure

by:Power Kingdom     2021-04-26
(1) Positive electrode plate (positive electrode active material) The main component of the positive electrode plate active material is lead dioxide. It has strong oxidizing properties. During discharge, it reacts with sulfuric acid to form lead sulfate and absorbs electrons. There are two types of lead dioxide. Type lattice, one is α-Pb02 and the other is β-Pb02. These two lead dioxide active materials are very different, and they play different roles in the positive plate. The capacity given by ß-Pb02 is 1.5~~~3 times of α-PbO2. And α-Pb02 has good mechanical strength. With its existence, the active material of the positive plate is not suitable for softening and falling off. Only when the ratio of α-Pb02 and βα-PbO2 reaches 0.8, lead-acid The battery will show good performance. In the discharge state, the positive active material reacts with the electrolyte sulfuric acid to produce lead sulfate and water. The reaction formula is as follows: Pb02+3H++HSO4+2eu003du003dPbSO4+2H2O When charging, it is in the external circuit Under the action of ρbO2 and H2SO4, the ρb4+ of lead dioxide accepts the electrons sent by the negative electrode to form ρb+2 and combines with the sulfate ions in the solution to form ρbSO4. When the lead sulfate reaches a certain amount, it becomes a precipitate Attached to the electrode plate. When charging, the electrons of the lead ions in the lead sulfate are taken away by the external circuit and converted into lead dioxide. The hydrogen ions in the water are left in the solution. The oxygen ions combine with the lead ions to form lead dioxide into the crystal lattice, The positive active material is formed. Lead-acid battery 12V7AH (two) negative plate (negative active material) In the lead-acid battery, in order to allow the negative active material to fully react with the electrolyte, the lead is made into a porous sponge shape, also known as Sponge lead, during discharge, lead gives external circuit electrons to form Pb+2 and combines with the sulfate radical of the solution to form lead sulfate. When charging, part of PbSO4 is first dissolved into Pb2+ and SO4. Pb+2 accepts electrons and reduces to lead into the negative electrode active material Lattice. (3) Electrolyte Sulfuric acid is one of the important raw materials in the electrolyte of lead-acid batteries. The concentrated sulfuric acid on the market is generally divided into two types: one is industrial concentrated sulfuric acid, which has low purity and is not suitable for lead-acid batteries; the other This is a pure analytical grade with high purity, which is more suitable for lead-acid batteries. The molecular weight of sulfuric acid is 98, and the content of sulfuric acid in concentrated sulfuric acid is 98%. After that, a lot of heat can be released. So in the electrolyte preparation process, we must pay attention to protection to avoid danger. When preparing, do not add water to concentrated sulfuric acid, but slowly add concentrated sulfuric acid to water. During the preparation of lead-acid battery electrolyte, the requirements for water are high, and the amount of impurities in the water directly affects the quality of the battery. The appearance of the water for lead-acid batteries is colorless and transparent, and the residue content should be less than 0.01%. General water testing standards Expressed in resistivity (Ωcm) or conductivity, the simpler method is: use resistivity measurement: use a digital multimeter to set the gear to 20MΩ, and place the two test pens of the multimeter 1 cm apart, and measure the resistance of the water. The resistance is 5-10MΩ. (4) Separator Separator is also one of the main components of lead storage batteries. Its quality has a great influence on the battery. The main function of the separator is to prevent the battery's positive and negative plates from short-circuiting. In the battery, the requirement for the separator is: use porous The quality separator allows the electrolyte to diffuse freely and ion migration. It must have a relatively small electrical resistance and a small separator pore size. The total area of u200bu200bthe gap must be large to prevent the active material falling off from reaching the opposite plate. Therefore, the pore size of the separator Smaller, more holes.
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